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Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Project Report writing

Structure & guidelines for an ACADEMIC PROJECT REPORT
(for BPR, MS-PR & MA-MCPR students)


This is intended to provide broad structure and guidelines to the BPR, MS-PR & MA-MCPR students in the preparation of their project report. In general, the project report shall report, in an organized and scholarly fashion, an account of original work of the candidate including methodology, data analysis, interpretation and summary of findings. It is enough if the report is ‘descriptive’ in nature following the method of ‘historical research’ i.e. based on the material already available on the subject, at this level.


Students shall submit 4 copies to the Study center Coordinator on or before the specified date.
1. One copy to be signed and returned to the student
2. One copy to be retained for the College Library
3. One copy to be given to the Guide concerned
4. One copy to be forwarded to the External Examiner


The size of project report should be not less than 60 pages of typed matter reckoned from the first page of Chapter 1 to the last page of the last chapter


The sequence in which the thesis material should be arranged and bound should be as follows:

a] Cover Page & Title page

b] Prefatory pages
Bonafide Certificate
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Symbols, Abbreviations and Nomenclature (Optional)

c] Chapters

d] Terminal pages
The Tables and Figures shall be introduced in the appropriate places

The dimensions of the final bound copies of the project report should be 290mm x 205mm. Standard A4 size (297mm x 210mm) paper may be used for preparing the copies. The final 4 copies of the project report (at the time of submission) shall have the following page margins: Top edge: 30 to 35 mm; Bottom edge: 25 to 30 mm; Left side: 35 to 40 mm; Right side: 20 to 25 mm
The project report should be prepared on good quality white paper preferably not lower than 80 gsm/sq.m. Tables and figures should conform to the margin specifications. Large size figures should be photographically or otherwise reduced to the appropriate size before insertion.


The candidate shall supply a typed copy of the manuscript to the guide for the purpose of approval. In the preparation of the manuscript, care should be taken to ensure that all textual matter is typewritten to the extent possible in the same format as may be required for the final project report. Hence some of the information required for the final typing of the project report is included also in this section. The headings of all items 2 to 11 listed in section 4 should be typed in capital letters without punctuation and centered 50mm below the top of the page. The text should commence 4 spaces below this heading. The page numbering for all items 1 to 8 should be done using lower case Roman numerals and the pages thereafter should be numbered using Arabic numerals.

6.1 Cover Page & Title Page –
A specimen copy of the Cover page & Title page for BPR project report is given in Annexure I.

6.2 Bonafide Certificate –
The Bonafide Certificate shall be in double line spacing using Font Style Times New Roman Font Size 12, as per the format shown in Annexure II. The certificate shall carry the signatures of student, Guide, Project In-charge at the Study center. The Bonafide certificate shall also carry the External Examiner’s signature obtained at the time of Viva-voce.

6.3 Abstract/synopsis –
Abstract should be an essay type of narration not exceeding 600 words, outlining the problem, the methodology used for tackling it and a summary of the findings, when typed double line spacing, Font Style Times New Roman and Font Size 12 and signed by the candidate.

6.4 Acknowledgment –
The acknowledgment should be brief and should not exceed one page when typed in double spacing. The candidate’s signature shall be made at the bottom end above his / her name typed in capitals

6.5 Table of contents –
The table of contents should list all material following it as well as any material which precedes it. The title page, Bonafide Certificate and Acknowledgment will not find a place among the items listed in the Table of Contents but the page numbers in lower case Roman letters are to be accounted for them. One and a half spacing should be adopted for typing the matter under this head.

6.6 List of Table –
The list should use exactly the same captions as they appear above the tables in the text. One and a half spacing should be adopted for typing the matter under this head.

6.7 List of Figures –
The list should use exactly the same captions as they appear below the figures in the text. One and a half spacing should be adopted for typing the matter under this head.

One and a half spacing should be adopted for typing the matter under this head. Standard symbols, abbreviations etc. should be used.

6.9 Chapters -
The main text will be divided into several chapters and each chapter may be further divided into several divisions and sub-divisions. The contents of the Chapters are only indicative. Only Chapter titles are common.

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Scope of the Study
1.3 Statement of the problem
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.5 Research methodology

Chapter 2: Profiles
2.1 Industry profile
2.2 Company profile

Chapter 3: Literature Survey
3.1 Conceptual and theoretical review
3.2 Research review

Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Interpretation
4.1 Analysis Part – I
4.2 Analysis Part – II

Chapter 5: Conclusions
5.1 Results and Discussions
5.2 Directions for further study
5.3 Limitations
5.4 Conclusion
5.5 Suggestions


*Each chapter should be given an appropriate title.
* Tables and figures in a chapter should be placed in the immediate vicinity of the reference where they are cited.
* Footnotes should be used sparingly. They should be typed single space and placed directly underneath in the very same page, which refers to the material they annotate.

6.10 Appendices-
Appendices are provided to give supplementary information, which if included in the main text may serve as a distraction and cloud the central theme under discussion.

* Appendices should be numbered using Arabic numerals, e.g. Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc.
* Appendices, Tables and references appearing in appendices should be numbered and referred to at appropriate places just as in the case of chapters.
* Appendices shall carry the title of the work reported and the same title shall be made in the contents page also.

6.11 List of References –
Any works of other researchers/writers of project reports, if used either directly or indirectly, the origin of the material thus referred to at appropriate places in the project report should be indicated. A paper, a monograph or a book may be designated by the name of the first author followed by the year of publication, placed inside brackets at the appropriate places in the project report should be indicated. The listing should be typed 4 spaces below the heading "REFERENCES" in alphabetical order in single spacing left-justified. The reference material should be listed in the alphabetical order of the first author. The name of the author/authors should be immediately followed by the year and other details. A typical illustrative list is given below.

1. CV Narasimha Reddi Dr (2009) “Effective Public Relations & Media Strategy” 1st edition, New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India.
2. Tom Jackle (2004) “Customer Satisfaction, Service Quality and perceived value: An integrative model” Journal of Marketing Management vol.20, issue 7/8, PP.897-917

6.12 Tables and Figures –
By the word Table, is meant tabulated numerical data in the body of the project report as well as in the appendices. All other non-verbal material used in theory of the project report and appendices such as charts, graphs, maps, photographs and diagrams may be designated as figures.

* A table or figure including caption should be accommodated within the prescribed margin limits and appear on the page following the page where their first reference is made.
* Tables and figures on half page or less in length may appear on the same page along with the text. However, they should be separated from the text both above and below by triple spacing.
* All tables and figures should be prepared on the same paper or material used for the preparation of the rest of the project report.
* For preparing captions, numerals, symbols or characters in the case of tables or figures, the Computer should be enclosed
* Two or more small tables or figures may be grouped if necessary in a single page.
* Wherever possible, the entire photograph(s) may be reproduced on a full sheet of photographic paper.
* Photographs if any should be included in the color Xerox form only. More than one photograph can be included in a page.
* Samples of Fabric, Leather, etc., if absolutely necessary may be attached evenly in a page and fixed/pasted suitably and should be treated as figures.


7.1 General
This section includes additional information for final typing of the project report. Some information given earlier under 'Manuscript preparation' shall also be referred. The impressions on the typed/duplicated/printed copies should be black in color. If Computer printers are used uniformity of the font in the same project report shall be observed.

A sub-heading at the bottom of a page must have at least two full lines below it or else it should be carried over to the next page. The last word of any page should not be split using a hyphen. One and a half spacing should be used for typing the general text. The general text shall be typed in Font Style Times New Roman and Font Size 12.
Single spacing should be used for typing:
(i) Long Tables
(ii) Long quotations
(iii) Foot notes
(iv) Multilane captions
(v) References
All quotations exceeding one line should be typed in an indented space - the indentation being 15mm from either margin.

7.2 Chapters
The format for typing Chapter headings, Division headings and Sub-division headings are explained through the following illustrative examples. 

Chapter heading: CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
Division heading: 1.1 OUTLINE OF PROJECT WORK
Sub-division heading: 1.1.2 Literature review. 

The word CHAPTER without punctuation should be centered 50mm down from the top of the page. Two spaces below, the title of the chapter should be typed centrally in capital letters. The text should commence 4 spaces below this title, the first letter of the text starting 20mm, inside from the left hand margin.
The division and sub-division captions along with their numberings should be left-justified. The typed material directly below division or sub-division heading should commence 2 spaces below it and should be offset 20mm from the left hand margin. Within a division or sub-division paragraphs are permitted. Even paragraph should commence 3 spaces below the last line of the preceding paragraph, the first letter in the paragraph being offset from the left hand margin by 20 mm.


8.1 Page Numbering
All pages numbers (whether it is in Roman or Arabic numbers) should be typed without punctuation on the upper right hand corner 20mm from top with the last digit in line with the right hand margin. The preliminary pages of the project report (such as Title page, Acknowledgement, Table of Contents etc.) should be numbered in lower case Roman numerals. The title page will be numbered as (i) but this should not be typed. The page immediately following the title page shall be numbered (ii) and it should appear at the top right hand corner as already specified. Pages of main text, starting with Chapter 1 should be consecutively numbered using Arabic numerals.

8.2 Numbering of Chapters, Divisions and Sub-Divisions
The numbering of chapters, divisions and sub-divisions should be done using Arabic numerals only and further decimal notation should be used for numbering the divisions and sub-divisions within a chapter. For example sub-division 4 under division 3 belonging to chapter 2 should be numbered as 2.3.4. The caption for the sub-division should immediately follow the number assigned to it. Every chapter beginning with the first chapter should be serially numbered using Arabic numerals. Appendices included should also be numbered in an identical manner starting with Appendix 1.

8.3 Numbering of Tables and Figures
Tables and Figures appearing anywhere in the thesis should bear appropriate numbers. The rule for assigning such numbers is illustrated through an example. Thus, if a figure in Chapter 3, happens to be the fourth then assign 3.4 to that figure. Identical rules apply for tables except that the word Figure is replaced by the word Table. If figures (or tables) appear in appendices then figure 3 in Appendix 2 will be designated as Figure A - 2.3. If a table to be continued into the next page this may be done, but no line should be drawn underneath an unfinished table. The top line of the table continued into the next page should, for example read Table 2.1 (continued) placed centrally and underlined.

8.4 Numbering of Equations
Equations appearing in each Chapter or Appendix should be numbered serially, the numbering commencing a fresh for each Chapter or Appendix. Thus for example, an equation appearing in Chapter 2, if it happens to be the eighth equation in that Chapter should be numbered (2.8) thus: f = k (2.8) c. While referring to this equation in the body of the project report it should be referred to as Equation (2.8).


* Project report submitted (4 copies) by BPR or MS-PR or MA-MCPR students, should be bound using flexible cover of thick white art paper. The spine for the bound volume should be black Calico of 20mm width. The cover should be printed in black letters and the text for printing should be identical to what has been prescribed for the title page. Since this is an academic record and not supposed to be altered, spiral binding may please be avoided.

** There will be an Internship for one month where the Internee-Student will have to get associated himself with an organisation. If need be they will be given with a letter of introduction to that effect by the Guide concerned. The project report is for 70 marks. There will be a Viva-voce for 30 marks after submission of the project report. Together, the project report is for a maximum of 100 marks and the pass marks is 40.